Root canal treatment is carried out when the caries threaten the nerve tissues of the teeth by getting deepened, when it causes pain in the tooth, and when the tooth dies (necrosis) due to various traumas or other reasons and infections start at its end. The root canal treatment is the last stage applied before we lose our actual tooth. It is the process in which the nerves and tissues in the canals are cleaned completely and the interior is closed again with filling substance. A tooth in which root canal treatment is applied is a mummified tooth. It is not living in any way. It does not react to heat and cold. It provides continuity in the mouth in terms of aesthetics and functionality. The patient can perform chewing with that tooth. All kinds of activities can be performed. As a tooth with root canal treatment cannot perform feeding, it cannot be used lifelong and it gets brittle over time. This treatment is applied with the approach that the more it stays in our mouths, the better.
Despite the concerns, the root canal treatment is not a painful method of treatment. Local anesthesia made under normal conditions is sufficient for this treatment. However, in cases when there is acute abscess and the tooth is very abscessed, the nerves within the tooth may not comply due to the change of pH there. In such cases, we can wait for the change of pH of this tooth with antibiotic treatment or other agents. The treatments to be made later are completely painless. Some discomfort may be felt in the first 24 hours after treatment. Burning, itching, mild pain are quite normal expectations. Patients are advised to take painkillers
Root canal treatment is a kind of treatment performed under local anesthesia. After the region containing the tooth is numbed, the tooth is opened with special tools, and the pulp chamber in the middle of the tooth is reached. Pulp chamber is the part containing the dental nerves and vessels. This pulp chamber should completely be cleaned off the dental nerves and vessels. The nerves and vessels coming from the dental bone reach the pulp through the canals present in the dental root. The soft and infected tissues in the canals are completely cleaned with special needles and tools in root canal treatment. The root canals are enlargened, the canal is filled with specially manufactured canal pads and fillings, and it is covered.
In the relief of caries, while the caries are often cleaned with rotary tools, alternatively they can also be cleaned with the help of laser. The advantage of the laser application here is that only the area of caries is eliminated. In laser application, the healthy dental tissue is not damaged, and there is no need for anesthesia in many cases. This provides significant advantage especially in pediatric patients. And in surgery, cuts can be made on the bone tissue and tooth with erbium lasers. And this reduces the duration of the surgeries and provides shorter duration of healing after operation. Many applications are made also with diode lasers. With a diode laser, the promotion of healing of the tissues is provided by applying laser beams on the region after the surgery. This process is called bio-modulation. The elimination of pain and edema is carried out effectively after the bio-modulation operation. Diode lasers can be used effectively in the elimination of stainings seen on the gums of some people, the elimination of bruises that we call pigmentation, bleaching, the elimination of infections occurring in the soft tissue, the removal of cysts occurring in the soft tissue, and in opening the gums before the measurement of teeth.
Laser dental treatment can be applied in many patients. There is no case where laser cannot be applied. Laser energy is a pretty safe form of energy. It allows for the necessary operations by eliminating the targeted tissues. At the same time, when laser is used at very low energy levels, it has the capacity to increase the rate of healing of the tissues. Low level laser application is not made only on the cancerous region in the regions with tumor and oral cancers, because it leads to the enlargement of tumorous region. In terms of age, it can be used in a range from infants to very aged patients. And there is no harm in the application of laser on the pregnant women. The feature of the laser beam is that it consists of light masses with single wavelength, these light masses move parallel to each other, and therefore an energy light following a straight line is created. This beam can turn into heat energy on the targeted issue, and eliminate the tissue with an immediate impact. In this way, incisions can be made on the soft tissue. The enamel can be eliminated and enamel incision can be made on the enamel.
When the use of lasers in dentistry is compared with conventional methods, their advantages are that they have strong bactericidal activity and the recovery time is kept short. Bactericidal activity is used particularly in cases of infection. Thanks to powerful influence, disinfection can be accomplished in tissue. For example, when the extraction of an acute abscessed tooth is required, the abscess can be eliminated and the microorganisms remaining in the region after extraction can be eliminated if laser interference is made. Similarly, it is also possible to eliminate the infections developing around the implants rapidly with lasers. One of the side effects of lasers is that they provide analgesia and perfom a kind of numbing. Due to this effect, if laser is applied during the cleaning of caries, anesthesia is not necessary in many patients. And this reveals the benefit of lasers in terms of the patients’ comfort. Therefore, nowadays, we use lasers in many different treatments in dentistry. Especially, the fact that the lasers operate quietly and clean the caries without the need for anesthesia offers a great advantage in pediatric patients, and they can be easily used in the children who are scared.